Advanced Materials: TechConnect Briefs 2015Advanced Materials TechConnect Briefs 2015

Nanoscale Materials Characterization Chapter 1

3D Nanostructuring and Nanoanalysis of Human Enamel and Dentin Using Focused Ion Beams

S. Sadighikia, M. Sezen
Sabanci University, Turkey

pp. 9 - 12

Keywords: FIB/SEM, 3D reconstruction, human dentin, enamel

This study particularly focuses on three dimensional nanoanalysis of human dentin and enamel samples, using FIB nanostructuring methods such as FIB tomography and preparation of 3D TEM samples. All biological tissues have three dimensional features and contain structures that span a range of length scales from nanometers through to hundreds of millimeters. Dental hard tissue comprises a combination of enamel and dentin, both of which have different compositions and structures. Enamel is mainly made of the mineral hydroxyapatite, which is crystalline calcium phosphate. Dentin consists of hydroxyapatite mineral (70%), organic material (20%), and water (10%) and is harder than bone but softer than enamel, and it is mostly made of phosphoric apatite crystallites. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technologies include the most versatile methods enabling nanoscale prototyping and structuring of materials besides simultaneous site-specific analysis. In this study FIB structuring applications were used in combination to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging in order to gain three-dimensional information on the enamel and dentin structures, providing resolution ranging from micrometer down to nanometer scale. The overall analysis helped to reveal the microstructure and morphology of human enamel and dentin comparatively in three dimensions in detail via HR-SEM and HR-TEM analysis.