N.K. Memon, M.A. Ismail, D.H. Anjum, S.H. Chung
Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar
pp. 195 - 198
Keywords: flame synthesis, TiO2, carbon oxidation
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are used in numerous applications involving catalysis, photo-catalysis, water purification, electrode for Li-ion batteries, polymer fillers, and pigments. Multiple-diffusion flames are used to coat/dope the TiO2 nanoparticles with various elements such as carbon, vanadium, silicon, and iron. The use of multiple diffusion flames offers several key advantages, such as uniform temperature and chemical species profiles and many of the limitations related to premixed flames such as flashback and flame speed are avoided. Crystal phase and size of the TiO2 nanoparticles are determined using x-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanoparticles are further characterized using Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). The morphology and crystal structure of the samples are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), with elemental mapping. With silicon precursors, the TiO2 nanoparticles are coated in a layer of silica, while for vanadium, the nanoparticles are doped with vanadium oxide. An iron based precursor results in the formation of iron-oxide alongside the TiO2 nanoparticles. Finally the iron based TiO2 nanoparticles significantly improve the catalytic oxidation of carbon, where complete oxidation of carbon occurs at a temperature of 450oC (with iron) compared to 600oC (without iron).