Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical: TechConnect Briefs 2017Biotech, Biomaterials and Biomedical TechConnect Briefs 2017

Diagnostics & Bioimaging Chapter 4

Point-of-Care (POC) Micro Biochip for Cancer Diagnostics

B.B. Nunna, E.S. Lee
New Jersey Institute of Technology, United States

pp. 110 - 113

Keywords: biochip, blood, point-of-care (POC), microchannels, nano electrodes, self-driven flow, cancer diagnosis, capacitive sensing

American cancer society stated that a total of 1,685,210 new cancer diagnosed cases out of which 595,690 deaths from cancer are expected to be reported in the United States of America in 2016. Unfortunately Cancer still remains the second most common causes for death in the United Stated, which is nearly 1 of every 4 deaths. Most of the cancers are curable if it can be identified at earlier stages. The early detection of cancers can enhance preventive measures, increase curability of the disease, reduces health care costs and finally improves the quality of life for patients. To achieve the early detection of specific cancer type, the biochip is incorporated with surface treated microchannels for controlled self-driven flow and capacitive sensing technology for enhanced selectivity and sensitivity. The microchannel in the biochip is designed to control the flow mechanism and amplify the capillary effect of the blood flow. The flow is self-driven using the natural phenomenon called surface tension of the blood. Cancer antibodies with enhanced specificity and affinity are specially developed and ligated in the microchannel. When the blood sample flows in the microchannel over the cancer antibody, the cancer antigen from the blood forms antigen-antibody complex. This antigen-antibody interaction is captured using the change in the capacitance using sophisticated Nano circuit design in the biochip. The cancer severity can also is sensed along with its existence, depending on the intensity of the signal output. The POC biochip can diagnose both the cancer and its severity using the micro biochip, using both qualitative and quantitative results of the biochip.